More than three-quarters of people living with diabetes (79%) in Pakistan only found out they had diabetes after developing diabetes complications. Additionally, almost all (97%) of those surveyed in the country had experienced one or more diabetes complications, with over a quarter (26%) having experienced heart disease as one of the diabetes complications. The findings come from global research recently carried out by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) ahead of World Diabetes Day on Monday, 14 November. The survey was conducted among people living with diabetes across Africa, Asia, Europe and South America to understand the level of awareness and impact of diabetes-related complications.
Diabetes-related complications can be serious and, in some cases, life-threatening. They include damage to the heart, eyes, kidneys and feet. The risk of complications places significant stress on people living with diabetes. More than two-fifths (43%) of respondents in Pakistan say they worry most days about developing diabetes-related complications.
The risk of complications can be significantly reduced through early detection, timely treatment and informed self-care. When asked about preventing their complications, nine in 10 respondents (94%) in Pakistan believe they could have done more; four-fifths (83%) think their healthcare provider could have done more.
Commenting on the research findings, Professor Abdul Basit, Director of Baqai Institute of Diabetology & Endocrinology (BIDE), said: “Complications are affecting the lives of too many people living with diabetes in Pakistan. More needs to be done to improve diabetes awareness and provide education to support the early detection and management of complications. What we have learned offers a stark reminder that diabetes often goes undetected until one or more complications have occurred.
“We know that, with the right information and care, people living with diabetes can greatly reduce their risk of complications. Furthermore, there are several steps that people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes can take to delay or prevent the onset of the condition altogether. It is key to know your level of risk, know what you should be looking for and know how to respond.”
There are several risk factors that increase the chance of developing type 2 diabetes. These include positive family history, weight, age, ethnicity, inactivity, and diabetes during pregnancy, some of which can be reduced through healthy eating habits and increased physical activity. Improving understanding and awareness of the risk factors is therefore important to support prevention, early diagnosis and timely treatment.
Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for over 90% of all diabetes, often develops silently, with symptoms that may go unnoticed. As a result, many people with the condition, more than 50% in some countries, are not diagnosed and, as the research suggests, complications are already present when diabetes is diagnosed. Unfortunately, despite the prevalence of diabetes-related complications in Pakistan, over a third (34%) of those living with diabetes in the country didn’t receive information about complications at the point of diagnosis. The most common complications experienced in Pakistan were foot (55%), eye (57%), and oral health (53%) problems.
Professor Basit added: “For those without access to the right support, diabetes and its complications can seriously impact day-to-day life and even become life-threatening. That is why IDF is committed to improving awareness of how best to manage the condition, helping people with diabetes to understand their risk and improving access to the best available care. Healthcare professionals must be equipped with the knowledge and resources to diagnose diabetes early and provide appropriate support.”
This World Diabetes Day, IDF is calling on individuals to learn about their risk of type 2 diabetes and on governments worldwide to dedicate sufficient resources to improving access to diabetes diagnosis and care.